Layer 3 Technologies

3.1 Identify, configure, and verify IPv4 addressing and subnetting

3.1.a Address types (Unicast, broadcast, multicast, and VLSM)

Unicast

Unicast addresses are source to destination based and work on a one-on-one basis. They are used for connections directly between two network entities.

  • Source address to destination address.
  • One-to-one .

 

Broadcast

Broadcast addresses are always the very last address of a network/subnet range they are used for a variety of reasons. DHCP requests are sent to the broadcast address, ARP makes use of the broadcast address to fulfil it's function.

  • Source address to broadcast address.
  • One-to-all .

 

Multicast

  • Source address to multicast address.
  • One-to-group.

 

VLSM

No longer following classful addressing rules

using multiple subnet masks to subdivide address space.

3.1.b ARP

  • IP address to Layer 2 address.
  • Helps to move data from device to device towards its destination.

3.1.c DHCP relay and server

DHCP Server

  • create excluded pool: ip dhcp pool excluded-address 10.10.10.1 10.10.10.10
  • configure DHCP: ip dhcp pool LAN_DHCP_POOL network 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0 default-router 10.10.10.1

 

DHCP Relay

configure helper address

  • on interface facing router that needs address
  • ip helper-address 10.10.10.10 

3.1.d DHCP protocol operations

Debug commands

  • debug ip dhcp server events
  • debug ip dhcp server packets
  • debug dhcp detail 

3.2 Identify IPv6 addressing and subnetting

3.2.a Unicast

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3.2.b EUI-64

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3.2.c ND, RS/RA

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3.2.d Autoconfig (SLAAC)

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3.2.e DHCP relay and server

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3.2.f DHCP protocol operations

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3.3 Configure and verify static routing

Static routing involves manually telling a router the next hop for a subnet

Pros

  • Easy to implement.
  • Low overhead.

Cons

  • Not dynamic.
  • Prone to mistakes.
  • Manual updating.

Example

  • router(config)# ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.4
  • router(config)# ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 s1/0

No metric

Administrative distance of 1

  • Only a directly connected route overrides by default
  • Directly connected has an admin distance of 0

Floating Static

  • Define an AD higher than the dynamic routing protocol
  • Static will only take effect if the dynamic route drops
  • When using EIGRP (AD of 90):
  • Router(config)# ip route 192.168.0.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.0.4 91

Track Objects

  • Static routes do not monitor reachability
  • Route stays, even if next hop is down
  • Exception is when destination is an interface
  • "Track" objects allow you to monitor next hop

3.4 Configure and verify default routing

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3.5 Evaluate routing protocol types

3.5.a Distance vector

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3.5.b Link state

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3.5.c Path Vector

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3.6 Describe administrative distance

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3.7 Troubleshoot passive interfaces

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3.8 Configure and verify VRF lite

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3.9 Configure and verify filtering with any protocol

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3.10 Configure and verify redistribution between any routing protocols or routing sources

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3.11 Configure and verify manual and auto-summarization with any routing protocol

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3.12 Configure and verify policy-based routing

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3.13 Identify suboptimal routing

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3.14 Explain ROUTE maps

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3.15 Configure and verify loop prevention mechanisms

3.15.a Route tagging and filtering

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3.15.b Split-horizon

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3.15.c Route poisoning

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3.16 Configure and verify RIPv2

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3.16 Configure and verify RIPv2

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3.17 Describe RIPng

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3.18 Describe EIGRP packet types

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3.19 Configure and verify EIGRP neighbor relationship and authentication

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3.20 Configure and verify EIGRP stubs

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3.21 Configure and verify EIGRP load balancing

3.21.a Equal cost

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3.21.b Unequal cost

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3.22 Describe and optimize EIGRP metrics

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3.23 Configure and verify EIGRP for IPv6

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3.24 Describe OSPF packet types

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3.25 Configure and verify OSPF neighbor relationship and authentication

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3.26 Configure and verify network types, area types, and router types

3.26.a Point-to-point, multipoint, broadcast, nonbroadcast

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3.26.b LSA types, area type: backbone, normal, transit, stub, NSSA, totally stub

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3.26.c Internal router, backbone router, ABR, ASBR

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3.26.d Virtual Links

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3.27 Configure and verify OSPF path preference

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3.27 Configure and verify OSPF path preference

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3.28 Configure and verify OSPF operations

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3.29 Configure and verify OSPF for IPv6

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3.30 Describe, configure, and verify BGP peer relationships and authentication

3.30.a Peer group

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3.30.b Active, passive

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3.30.c States and timers

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3.31 Configure and verify eBGP (IPv4 and IPv6 address families)

3.31.a eBGP

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3.31.b 4-byte AS number

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3.31.c Private AS

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3.32 Explain BGP attributes and best-path selection

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